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GRAMATICA DE INGLES

English Grammar
1.1. TIEMPOS VERBALES
* Presente simple 1

* Presente simple 2

* Presente simple To be

* Presente simple To have

* Presente continuo

* Presente simple Vs. Presente continuo

* Pasado simple

* Pasado simple To be

* Lista de verbos irregulares

* Pasado continúo

* Pasado simple Vs. Pasado continúo

* Presente perfecto 1

* Presente perfecto 2 (for-since-ago)

* Presente simple Vs. Presente perfecto

* Presente perfecto continúo

* Pasado perfecto

* Pasado perfecto continúo

* Futuro simple

* Futuro simple Vs. To be going + inf

* Futuro continuo

* Futuro perfecto

* Futuro perfecto continúo
2. ESTRUCTURAS VERBALES
* There is/are

* there was/were

* Used to / to be used to
3. VERBOS MODALES
* Can – could y be able to

* Must – have to y don´t have to

* Mustn`t

* Should y ought to

* May y might

* Need y needn`t

* Verbos + ing

* Verbos + inf con / sin to
5. ARTICULOS
* The

* A/an

6. CONJUNCIONES
* And,

* But or so

* Because
7. SUSTANTIVOS
* Contables e incontables

* Plural sustantivo

* Genitivo
8. ADJETIVOS:
* Adjetivos some y any

* Posición de adjetivos

* Formación de adjetivos

* Adjetivos posesivos

* Adjetivos comparativos

* Adjetivos superlativos

* Palabras interrogativas

* Adjetivos o pronombres
9. ADVERBIOS
* Adverbios de frecuencia
10. PREPOSCICIONES
* In, at, on de lugar

* In, at, on de tiempo

* Varias
11. PRONOMBRES- SUSTITUCION DE PALABRAS
* Posesivos (mine, yours)

* Objeto (me, you)

* Reflexivos (myself)

* One/ones

* So, such
12. IMPERATIVO
* Oraciones de relativo

* Condicionales

* Estilo indirecto (reported speech)
13 . VOZ PASIVA 1
14. VOZ PASIVA 2
15. ORDEN DE LAS PALABRAS
* Inversión verbo – sujeto
16. VOCABULARIO
* Abbreviations

* American and british

* Common expresions

* Idioms 1

* Make or do

* Ok

* Proverbs

* Idioms 2

* Phrasal Verbs (1-11)
Vocabulario Temático
* Birds

* Body parts

* Colours

* Computers

* Countries and nations

* Fruit

* Internet

* Jobs

* The city

* The house

* Languages

* Money

* Sport

* Sationery (art. Papeleria)

* Television

* Travel and accomodation

* Work
17. LECTURAS
* How to be a hypocrite

* How to be rude

* Irish symbols

* The national

* The weather
18. INGLES COMERCIAL
* Business English vocabulary

* Formal letters (general structure)

* Letter of application for a job

* Letter of enquiry (pedir información)

* Phone conversations


1. VERBOS

1.1.TIEMPOS VERBALES
* Presente simple 1
Uso: normalmente se utiliza para hablar de acciones habituales, pero en ocasiones puede tener sentido de futuro.
Afirmativa
I work

You work

He / she / it works

We work

You work

They work
1. He/she/it: Sólo la tercera persona del singular (he/she/it) es diferente de las demás, ya que se le añade “-s.
2. Existen verbos a los que se añade “-esen lugar de “-s”:
- do – does

- go – goes
- verbos que terminan en:
s pass - passes

ch watch - watches

sh wash - washes

x mix - mixes

z buzz - buzzes
3. La terminación es “– ies” cuando un verbo acaba en “consonante +y”. La “y” se Convierte en “i” y se añade “-es”:
- study - studies

- carry - carries
Negación
Forma completa Forma contraída
I do not work I don´t work

You do not work You don´t work

He / she / it does not work He / she /it doesn´t work

We do not work We don´t work

You do not work You don´t work

They do not work They don´t work


Interrogación
Pregunta breve Respuesta breve
Do I work? Yes, I do No, I don´t

Do you work? Yes, you do No, you don´t

Does work? Yes, he does No, he doesn´t

Do we work? Yes, we do No, we don´t

Do you work? Yes, you do No, you don´t

Do they work? Yes, they do No, they don´t
Presente simple con valor de futuro
Utilizamos el presente simple para hablar de hechos futuros que dependen de algún horario o programa.
Ejemplos:
- The train to Norfolk leaves from platform 7 in 10 minutes.

- The next conference takes place in the other building.

- They arrive before lunch tomorrow and catch the last bus.
Presente histórico
El presente simple se puede utilizar para hablar de hechos pasados. En estos casos, el presente confiere una sensación de realidad y cercanía a los hechos narrados.
Ejemplos:
- Christopher Columbus discovers America by mistake in 1492.

- She was very late and then she tells me she must leave early because she has to work the next day.
* Presente simple To be
To be = ser o estar.
La forma completa y la contraída son igualmente correctas, aunque la contraída es algo más informal.
Afirmativa
Forma completa Forma contraída
I am I´m

You are you´re

He is he´s

We are we´re

You are you´re

They are they´re


Negación sujeto + verbo + not
Forma completa Forma contraída
I am not I´m not

You are not you aren´t

He is not he isn´t

We are not we aren´t

You are not you aren´t

They are not they aren´t
Interrogación verbo + sujeto
Am I ...? Yes, I am No, I´m not

Are you...? Yes, you are No, you aren´t

Is he ...? Yes, he is No, he is

Are we...? Yes, we are No, we aren´t

Are you....? Yes, you are No, you aren´t

Are they....? Yes, they are No, they aren´t
Ejemplos:
- Are you a student? Yes, I am.

- Is she your friend? Yes, she is.

- Are they your classmates? No, they aren´t.
* Presente simple To have
To have = tener o haber
Afirmativa Negación
I have I do not have I don´t have

You have you do not have you don´t have

He has he does not have he doesn´t have

We have we do not have we don´t have

You have you do not have you don´t have

They have they do not have they don´t have
Interrogación
Do I have...? Yes, I do No, I don´t

Do you have...? Yes, you do No, you don´t

Does he has… ? Yes, he does No, he doesn´t

Do we have...? Yes, we do No, we don´t

Do you have...? Yes, you do No, you don´t

Do they have...? Yes, they do No, they don´t
Have (got) = tener, es algo más común que have.
Afirmativa
I have got I´ve got lots of books

You have got you´ve got a car

He has got he´s got a brown dog

We have got we´ve got a pen

You have got you´ve got a pretty cat

They have got they´ve got friends
Negación
I have not got I haven´t got

You have not got you haven´t got

He has not got he hasn´t got

We have not got we haven´t got

You have not got you haven´t got

They have not got they haven´t got
Interrogación
Have I got...? Yes, I have No, I haven´t

Have you got...? Yes, you have No, you haven´t

Has he got…? Yes, he has No, he hasn´t

have we got...? Yes, we have No, we haven´t

Have you got...? Yes, you have No, you haven´t

Have they got...? Yes, they have No, they haven´t
* Presente continuo
Uso: se utiliza normalmente para hablar de acciones que están ocurriendo en el momento en el que se habla. En español suele equivaler a: estar + gerundio.
Afirmativa
I am working I´m working

You are working you´re working

He is working he´s working

We are working we´re working

You are working you´re working

They are working they´re working
Negación
I am not working I´m not working

You are not working you aren´t working

He is not working he isn´t working

We are not working we aren´t working

You are not working you aren´t working

They are not working they aren´t working
Interrogación
Am I working? Yes, I am No, I´m not

Are you working? Yes, you are No, you aren´t

Is he working? Yes, he is No, he isn´t

Are we working? Yes, we are No, we aren´t

Are you working? Yes, you are No, you aren´t

Are they working? Yes, they are No, they aren´t
Reglas ortográficas de los verbos acabados en –ing:
1. Los verbos que acaban en una sola –e pierden esta vocal y añaden –ing:
write - writing

have - having

come - coming
2. Los verbos de una sílaba acabados en vocal + consonanteduplican la consonante y añaden –ing (excepto en el caso de w y y):
put - putting

stop - stopping

shop - shopping
* Presente simple Vs. Presente continuo
El presente simple se utiliza para hablar de cosas que ocurren habitualmente o en general:
- James studies German at university.

- My parents live in the south.

- Jane works in Italy every summer.

- My friends have a car.

- Water boils at 100 Celsius degrees.

- Sharks are dangerous animals.
El presente continuo, en cambio, se utiliza para hablar de cosas que están ocurriendo en el momento en el que se habla:
- Mary is playing the guitar now.

- Take an umbrella. It´s raining.

- Let´s go to the park! The sun is shinning.

- They are working in the garage at the moment.
Existen verbos que sólo pueden utilizarse en presente simple
Like - depend - remember – relieve – dislike - know - forget - prefer - love – mean- want – hate - understand - need
* Pasado simple
Uso: el pasado simple se utiliza normalmente para referirnos a hechos que sucedieron en un momento concreto del pasado.
Existen verbos regulares, a los que se añade ed en el pasado, como work (worked en pasado) y otros irregulares, que es necesario aprender, como go (went en pasado).


Afirmativa
Verbos regulares (work)
I worked

You worked

He worked

We worked

You worked

They worked
Ortografía de las formas de pasado regulares
1. Verbos acabados en “consonante + y” ied:
study - studied

carry – carried
2. Verbos monosilábicos acabados en “vocal + consonante” duplican la consonante (excepto They worked “y” o “w”)
Stop - stopped

Shop - shopped

Pronunciación de la terminación “–ed ” de pasado
Se puede pronunciar como /t/ /d/ o /id/, dependiendo del sonido en el que acabe el infinitivo:
/t/ watched, stopped, shopped, washed, worked (cuando el verbo acaba en sonido sordo)

/d/ lived, arrived, opened, called, changed (cuando el verbo acaba en sonido sonoro)
/id/ started, painted, needed (cuando el verbo acaba en sonido /t/ o/d/).

Verbos irregulares (go)
Go (ir) went gone
I went

You went

He went

We went

You went

They went
Negación
Verbos regulares (work)
I did not work I didn´t work

You did not work You didn´t work

He did not work He didn´t work

We did not work We didn´t work

You did not work You didn´t work

They did not work They didn´t work
Verbos irregulares (go)
I did not go I didn´t go

You did not go You didn´t go

He did not go He didn´t go

We did not go We didn´t go

You did not go You didn´t go

They did not go They didn´t go
Interrogación
Verbos regulares (work)
Did I work? Yes, I did No, I didn´t

Did you work? Yes, you did No, you didn´t

Did he work? Yes, hedid No, he didn´t

Did we work? Yes, we did No, we didn´t

Did you work? Yes, you did No, you didn´t

Did they work? Yes, they did No, they didn´t

Verbos irregulares (go)
Did I go? Yes, I did No, I didn´t

Did you go? Yes, you did No, you didn´t

Did he go? Yes, he did No, he didn´t

Did we go? Yes, we did No, we didn´t

Did you go? Yes, you did No, you didn´t

Did they go? Yes, they did No, they didn´t
* Pasado simple To be
Afirmativa
I was

You were

He was

We were

You were

They were
Negación sujeto + verbo + not
I was not I wasn´t

You were not you weren´t

He was not he wasn´t

We were not we weren´t

You were not you weren´t

They were not they weren´t
Interrogación verbo + sujeto
Was I ...? Yes, I was No, I wasn´t

Were you...? Yes, you were No, you weren´t

Was he....? Yes, he wasn´t

Were we...? Yes, we were No, we weren´t

Were you....? Yes, you were No, you weren´t

Were they....? Yes, they were No, they weren´t
Ejemplos:
- Were you a student? Yes, I was.

- Was she your friend? Yes, she was.

- Were they your classmates? No, they weren´t.

* Lista de verbos irregulares

Infinitivo Pretérito Participio Pasado
Abide (soportar) abode abided

Arise (surgir) arose arisen

Awake (despertarse) awoke, awaked awoken

Be (ser-estar) was-were been

Bear (llevar) bore borne

Beat (golpear) beat beaten

Become (hacerse) became become

Befall (llegar) befell befallen

Beget (engendrar) begot begotten

Begin (empezar) began begun

Behold (advertir) beheld beheld

Bend (doblar) bent bent

Bereave (privar) bereaved bereft

Beseech (implorar) besought besought

Bestride (cabalgar) bestrode bestridden

Bet (apostar) bet, betted bet, betted

Bid (ofrecer) bade bidden

Bind (unir) bound bound

Bite (morder) bit bitten

Bleed (sangrar) bled bled

Blow (soplar) blew blown

Break (romper) broke broken

Breed (criar) bred bred

Bring (traer) brought brought

Broadcast (retransmitir) broadcast broadcast

Build (construir) built built

Burn (quemar) burnt, burned burnt, burned

Burst (estalallar) burst burst

Buy (comprar) bought bought

Cast (tirar) cast cast

Catch (coger) caught caught

Chide (regañar) chid, chided chid, chidden, chided

Choose (elegir) chose cosen

Cling (agarrarse) clung clung

Clothe (vestir) clothed, clad clothed, clad

Come (venir) came come

Cost (costar) cost cost

Creep (arrastrarse) crept crept

Crow (cacarear) crowed, crew crowed

Cut (cortar) cut cut

Dare (atreverse) dared, durst dared, durst

Deal (tratar) dealt dealt

Dig (cavar) dug dug

Dive (zambullirse) dived, dove dived

Draw (dibujar, tirar) drew Drawn

Dream (soñar) dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed

Drink (tomar) drank drunk

Drive (conducir) drove driven

Dwell (habitar) dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled

Eat (comer) ate eaten

Fall (caer) fell fallen

Feed (alimentarse) fed fed

Feel (sentir) felt felt

Fight (luchar) fought fought

Find (encontrar) found found

Fit (sentar) fit, fitted fit, fitted

Flee (huir) fled fled

Fling (lanzar) flung flung

Fly (volar) flew flown

Forbear (abstenerse) forbore forborne

Forbid (prohibir) forbad(e) forbidden

Forget (olvidar) forgot forgotten

Forgive (perdonar) forgave forgiven

Forsake (abandonar) forsook forsaken

Freeze (congelar) froze frozen

Get (conseguir) got got, gotten

Gild (dorar) gilt, gilded gilt, gilded

Gird (rodear) girt, girded girt, girded

Give (dar) gave given

Go (ir) went gone

Grind (moler) ground ground

Grow (crecer) grew grown

Hang (colgar) hung, hanged hung, hanged

Hear (oír) heard heard

Heave (alzar) hove, heaved hove, heaved

Hew (tallar) hewed hewn, hewed

Hide (esconder) hid hidden

Hit (golpear) hit hit

Hold (mantener) held held

Hurt (dañar) hurt hurt

Keep (mantener) kept kept

Kneel (arrodillarse) knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled

Knit (hacer punto ) knit, knitted knit, knitted

Know (saber, conocer) knew known

Lay (poner, extenderse) laid laid

Lead (guiar) led led

Lean (apoyarse) leant, leaned leant, leaned

Leap (saltar) leapt, leaped leapt, leaped

Learn (aprender) learnt, learned learnt, learned

Leave (abandonar, partir) left left

Lend (prestar) lent lent

Let (dejar) let let

Lie (yacer) lay lain

Light (encender) lit, lighted lit, lighted

Lose (perder) lost lost

Make (hacer) made made

Mean (significar) meant meant

Meet (encontrar) met met

Melt (derretirse) melted melted

Mow (segar) mowed mown, mowed

Pay (pagar) paid paid

Plead (implorar) pled, pleaded pled, pleaded

Put (poner) put put

Quit (dejar) quit, quitted quit, quitted

Read (leer) read read

Rend (rajar) rent rent

Rid (librar) rid, ridded rid, ridded

Ride (montara) rode ridden

Ring (sonar) rang rung

Rise (alzarse) rose risen

Run (correr) ran run

Saw (serrar) sawed sawn, sawed

Say (decir) said said

See (ver) saw seen

Seek (buscar) sought sought

Sell (vender) sold sold

Send (enviar) sent sent

Set (colocar) set set

Sew (coser) sewed sewn, sewed

Shake (sacudir) shook shaken

Shear (esquilar, podar) sheared shorn, sheared

Shed (despojarse) shed shed

Shine (brillar) shone shone

Shoe (calzar) shod, shoed shod, shoed

Shoot (disparar) shot shot

Show (mostrar) showed showed

Shrink (encoger) shrank, shrunk shrunk, shrunken

Shut (cerrar) shut shut

Sing (cantar) sang sung

Sink (hundir) sank sunk, sunken

Sit (sentarse) sat sat

Slay (matar) slew slain

Sleep (dormir) slept slept

Slide (deslizarse) slid slid

Sling (colgar) slung slung

Slink (escabullirse) slunk slunk

Slit (partir) slit slit

Smell (oler) smelt, smelled smelt, smelled

Smite (golpear) smote smitten

Sneak (colarse) snuck, sneaked snuck, sneaked

Speak (hablar) spoke spoken

Speed (ir a prisa) sped, speeded sped, speeded

Spell (deletrear) spelt, spelled spelt, spelled

Spend (gastar) spent spent

Spill (derramar) spilt, spilled spilt, spilled

Spin (girar) spun spun

Spit (escupir) spat, spit spat, spit

Split (dividirse) split split

Spoil (estropear) spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled

Spread (extender) spread spread

Spring (saltar) sprang Sprung

Stand (estar de pie) stood stood

Steal (robar) stole stolen

Stick (fijar) stuck stuck

Sting (picar) stung stung

Stink (apestar) stank stunk

Strew (esparcir) strewed strewn, strewed

Stride (ir a zancadas) strode striden

Strike (golpear) struck struck, stricken

Swear (jurar) swore sworn

Sweat (sudar) sweat, sweated sweat, sweated

Sweep (barrer) swept swept

Swell (inflarse) swelled swelled, swollen

Swim (nadar) swam swum

Swing (balancearse) swung swung

Take (tomar) took taken

Teach (enseñar) taught taught

Tear (desgarrar) tore torn

Tell (contar) told told

Think (pensar) thought thought

Thrive (prosperar) thrived (throve) thrived (throve)

Throw (tirar) threw thrown

Thrust (empujar) thrust thrust

Tread (pisar) trod trodden

Understand (entender) understood understood

Undertake (emprender) undertook undertaken

Wake (despertarse) Woke, Waked woken, Waked

Wear (vestir) wore worn

Weave (tejer) wove woven

Weep (llorar) wept wept

Win (ganar) won won

Wind (enrollar) wound wound

Wring (retorcer) wrung wrung

Write (escribir) wrote written

* Pasado continuo
Uso: se utiliza para hablar de acciones que ocurrieron durante un tiempo en el pasado. En español equivale normalmente a “estaba + gerundio”
Afirmativa
I was working

You were working

He was working

We were working

You were working

They were working
Negación
I was not working I wasn´t working

You were not working you weren´t working

He was not working he wasn´t working

We were not working we weren´t working

You were not working you weren´t working

They were not working they weren´t working
Interrogación
Was I working? Yes, I was No, I wasn´t

Were you working? Yes, you were No, you weren´t

Was he working? Yes, he wasn´t

Were we working? Yes, we were No, we weren´t

Were you working? Yes, you were No, you weren´t

Were they working? Yes, they were No, they weren´t

* Pasado simple Vs. Pasado continuo
El pasado simple: se suele utilizar para referirnos a situaciones o acciones completas del pasado o a situaciones permanentes o de larga duración, también en el pasado.

Ejemplos:
- I lived in Rome till I was 10.

- She bought chocolates because she thought you liked them.
El pasado continuo: se refiere a situaciones o eventos temporales de un momento del pasado. Muchas veces se utiliza el pasado continuo para describir una situación durante la cual se produjo otro evento (en pasado simple) que la interrumpió o se produjo paralelamente.
The phone rang

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We were watching television
Ejemplos:
-She arrived when we were having dinner.

-Tom was having a shower when someone knocked at the door.

-The neighbour felt ill while he was working in the garden.
Cuando hablamos de situaciones o eventos simultáneos en el pasado, puede utilizarse el pasado simple o el pasado continuo:
Ejemplos:
-They went on holiday while their son was at university.

-Jill was making dinner while he was laying the table.
* Presente perfecto 1
Así se forma el presente perfecto en su forma afirmativa: Sujeto + have/has +
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