Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

descargar 81.83 Kb.
títuloGroup 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?
fecha de publicación11.06.2016
tamaño81.83 Kb.
tipoDocumentos > Ley > Documentos

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

Document A

"How's your breath today?" Listerine ads from the 1920s often asked. "Don't fool yourself . . . Halitosis (bad breath) makes you unpopular."

In 1914, Listerine was introduced as the nation's first mouthwash. Until then, bad breath was something few people thought much about. Listerine advertisements changed that. Suddenly people began to worry about "halitosis"—a medical term for bad breath that Listerine's made popular. "Anyone could have Halitosis," the ads warned. "The scary thing about it is that you yourself may never realize when you have it." Listerine sales increased a lot. In just seven years, the product's money from sales increased into the millions—all thanks to the power of advertising.

New Products Promise to Make Life Easier

At the root of the Listerine ad was a promise. Use Listerine every day, and your life will get better. In the 1920s, the makers of other new products repeated such promises in radio and print advertisements. In the process, they helped create a new consumer culture. This is a culture that views the consumption of large quantities of goods as beneficial to the economy and a source of personal happiness.

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

Document B

Source: Country Life, 1925
Radios became popular and more available to the public in the 1920s. In the United States, radio sales, which jumped to $60 million in 1923, skyrocketed to more than $842 million by 1929. 


Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

Document C
By 1924, two thirds of all American homes had electricity. It became practical to create and advertise home electrical appliances. General Electric, founded in 1878 as the Edison Electric Company, introduced the first electric refrigerator— the popular Monitor Top, which sold for around $350. Earlier refrigerators had a compartment that held a block of ice. Iceboxes were used until the 1950s in some homes. But as early as 1929, ice boxes were well on their way to extinction; half of the refrigerators sold were electric. 


Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

Document D

Note: Per Capita Consumption means how much each person consumes, buys, or uses.
Income – money you make in a job

Source: and History Alive
New kinds of advertisements created demand for these new products. No longer was it enough to say what the product was and why it was good. Now advertisers used psychologists to match their ads to people's desires and behaviors. In 1925, economist Stuart Chase observed,
Advertising does give a certain illusion, a certain sense of escape in a machine age. It creates a dream world: smiling faces, shining teeth, school girl complexions, cornless feet, perfect fitting union suits, distinguished collars, wrinkleless pants, odorless breaths, . . . charging motors, punctureless tires, . . .self-washing dishes.
—Stuart Chase, "The Tragedy of Waste," The Atlantic Monthly, 1925

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s?

Document E

Americans Begin to Buy Now, Pay Later

In the 1920s, Americans had the highest standard of living in the world.1 Still, many consumers could not afford all the goods they wanted and thought they needed. One reason was that the new products often cost a lot more than the older ones they were replacing. An electric washing machine cost much more than an old-fashioned washboard. The same was true of an electric shaver compared with a safety razor.

The expansion of credit made it possible for people to buy what they wanted, even when they did not have enough money.  Credit is when you buy something with money you borrow – when you use a credit card, you are doing the same thing. In the past, most Americans had thought it shameful2 to borrow money to buy things. Many people saved money until they had enough to buy what they wanted with cash. By the 1920s, however, this began to seem old-fashioned.

By the end of the 1920s, about 15 percent of all purchases for household products and clothes were made using credit. This included about three out of every four radios and six out of every ten cars. Buying on credit was so easy that many Americans began to think the good times would go on forever.

Group 2: How did transportation change in the 1920s?
ocument A

The most famous female pilot, Amelia Earhart, was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. In 1935, she became the first person to fly alone from Hawaii to California. When Earhart tried to fly around the world in 1937, her plane disappeared over the Pacific Ocean.

Document B

Group 2: How did transportation change in the 1920s?

Source:  The Youth's Companion and American Boy in May and June of 1924.

Group 2: How did transportation change in the 1920s?
ocument C

Automobiles Change American Life

Source: History Alive, 2009

By making cars affordable3, automaker Henry Ford had changed the way Americans lived. Cars helped people get to places, but it also did more. A car gave women and teenagers a new sense of freedom. Farmers could travel to the city. By the late 1920s, Americans owned more cars than bathtubs. 

Caption: Henry Ford inspired America’s love affair with the automobile. In the 1920s, Ford’s Model T’s were plain but affordable. When other manufacturers began to produce better-looking cars, Ford stopped making the Model T and instead made the Model A—another great success.

he automobile changed where Americans lived. Workers in the city did not have to live close to work anymore or near public transportation. Suburbs to grow around cities now that people could drive to work and back home. In the 1920s, for the first time in the nation's history, suburbs grew more quickly than cities.

Before cars became popular, most roads were dirt. When it rained, automobiles sometimes sank to their wheels in mud. Drivers often had to wait days for mud to dry before they could move on. The Federal Highway Act of 1916 encouraged states to create highway departments to solve this problem. Congress passed another highway act in 1921 to help pay to build roads.

As highways increased, new businesses took root beside them. Gas stations, diners, campgrounds, and motels were started to help people traveling by car. Advertising billboards became more common. At the same time, there were more deaths from car accidents. The number of people killed in automobile accidents each year increased from fewer than 5,000 before the 1920s to more than 30,000 by the 1930s. Historian Frederick Lewis Allen noted yet another change brought about by the car:
The automobile age brought a parking problem… During the early nineteen-twenties the commuters who left their cars at the suburban railway stations at first parked them at the edge of the station drive; then they needed a special parking lot, and pretty soon an extended parking lot, and in due course, a still bigger one—and the larger the lot grew, the more people wanted to use it.

—Frederick Lewis Allen, The Big Change, 1952

Group 2: How did transportation change in the 1920s?
Document C

Source: History Alive, 2009

El Automóvil le da nueva forma a la vida americana

Al hacer asequibles los automóviles, el fabricante de automóviles Henry Ford había cambiado la forma de vivir de los americanos. Los automóviles se convirtieron rápidamente en más que un medio de transporte más. Los automóviles les daban a las mujeres y a los adolescentes una nueva sensación de libertad. Puso fin al aislamiento de los agricultores. Hizo que los viajes a lugares distantes fueran agradables. Para finales de la década de 1920, los americanos poseían más automóviles que tinas. Como explicó una mujer: “No se puede ir al centro en una tina”.

El automóvil cambió los lugares de residencia de los americanos. Los trabajadores urbanos ya no tenían que vivir a poca distancia a pie de su lugar de trabajo o cerca de una línea de tranvías para llegar al trabajo. Los barrios de las afueras empezaron a extenderse en torno a las ciudades conforme a la gente le resultaba más fácil viajar en automóvil ida y vuelta al trabajo. En la década de 1920, por primera vez en la historia de la nación, los barrios de las afueras crecieron más rápido que las ciudades.

Antes de que los automóviles se hicieran comunes, la mayoría de las carreteras eran caminos de tierra. A veces cuando llovía, los automóviles se hundían en barro hasta los cubos (rines). Con frecuencia los automovilistas tenían que esperar durante varios días hasta que se secara el lodo antes de poder seguir su camino. La Ley Federal de Carreteras (Federal Highway Act) de 1916 animó a los estados a crear departamentos de carreteras para tratar este problema. El Congreso aprobó otra ley de carreteras en 1921 para financiar la construcción de carreteras.

A medida que las carreteras se extendían poco a poco por el continente, se establecieron nuevos negocios en sus orillas. Gasolineras, cafeterías, campings y moteles surgieron para satisfacer las necesidades del automovilista. Con frecuencia se veían vallas publicitarias en los bordes de las carreteras. Al mismo tiempo, aumentó el número de víctimas de accidentes. El número de muertos anuales como consecuencia de accidentes automovilísticas aumentó de menos de 5,000 antes de la década de 1920 a más de 30,000 para la década de 1930. El historiador Frederick Lewis Allen observó todavía otro cambio ocasionado por el automóvil:

La edad del automóvil trajo un problema de estacionamiento que se solucionaba una y otra vez y después necesitaba volver a solucionarse. Durante los primeros años de la década de 1920, los conductores que dejaban sus automóviles en estaciones de ferrocarril de las afueras los estacionaban al principio en el borde de la entrada de la estación; después, necesitaban un estacionamiento especial, y dentro de poco, un estacionamiento más amplio, y en su debido momento, uno incluso más grande—y cuanto más crecía el estacionamiento, más personas querían usarlo.

—Frederick Lewis Allen, The Big Change (El Gran cambio), 1952

Henry Ford inspiró la pasión de América por el automóvil. En la década de 1920 los Modelos T de Ford eran sencillos pero asequibles. Cuando otros fabricantes empezaron a producir automóviles más atractivos, Ford reemplazó el Modelo T con el Modelo A—otro gran éxito.

Group 3: How did entertainment change in the 1920s?

ocument A


Radio became popular in American houses in the 1920s. Like newspapers and magazines, radio was a form of communication that could reach very large audiences. Suddenly, popular culture had a voice. (TV was not invented yet!)

A woman is using her radio in the 1920s.
ocument B

Motion Pictures Create Movie Stars and Fans

Motion pictures, or movies, were first developed in the 1890s. At that time, movies were silent. After World War I, a lot of people went to the movie theaters – many wanted to escape the sadness of the bad economy after the war.  Money from selling tickets ticket increase from $301 million in 1921 to $721 million in 1929. The number of people going to the movies went from 50 million in 1920 to 90 million in 1929.

Motion pictures showed Americans new fashions, new hairstyles, and different behavior. As one historian wrote, "Radio told the masses what to do, and movies showed them how to do it."

First animated film with sound, by Walt Disney, 1928

The first full-length movie with sound, The Jazz Singer, 1927

This photograph shows silent film actor Charlie Chaplin in his famous role as the Tramp. Although the Tramp was penniless and homeless, his lighthearted attitude suggested a spirit that could bounce back from the most crushing defeats.
Esta foto muestra al actor de películas mudas Charlie Chaplin en su famoso papel como Charlot. Aunque Charlot no tenía un céntimo ni un hogar, su alegre actitud sugería un espíritu capaz de recuperarse de las derrotas más aplastantes.

Group 3: How did entertainment change in the 1920s?

ocument C

Source: History Alive, 2009

By the 1920s, most businesses had an eight-hour workday, and a five-day workweek. Americans now had more free time and could do more things than just work. Economist Stuart Chase estimated that Americans spent one fourth of the national income on play and recreation. Some of this money went toward spectator sports, or sports that attract large numbers of fans who attend games.

Sports became a big business. Professional baseball and football teams attracted legions of loyal fans.Boxing and wrestling matches also attracted crowds.

The photo to the left is of Babe Ruth, who is perhaps America’s most-loved athlete. He made baseball more exciting by making home runs a common part of the game. He also set many major league records, including 2,056 career bases on balls and 72 games in which he hit two or more home runs. In 1936, he was one of the first five players elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame.

Group 4: How did art, music and literature change during the 1920s?
Document A

Source: History Alive, 2009

The famous author Ernest Hemingway

fter World War I, some writers became critical of American ideas and values. Sickened by the slaughter of war, some even moved to Europe, especially Paris. There they gathered at the apartment of writer Gertrude Stein, who called these young people the Lost Generation. They included E. E. Cummings, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, and Sherwood Anderson. These writers developed themes and writing styles that still define modern literature.

The poet E. E. Cummings brought fresh ideas to his poetry. He used no capitalization and did not follow the usual way of presenting verse on a page. Ernest Hemingway used a direct, taut style in his novels. His first book, The Sun Also Rises, describes the rootless feelings of many young people after the war.

La Literatura y el arte reflejan la vida Americana

Los escritores blancos también criticaban las ideas y valores americanos.Asqueados por la carnicería de la guerra, algunos hasta se mudaron a Europa, sobre todo París. Allí se reunían en el apartamento de la escritora Gertrude Stein, que llamaba a estos jóvenes la Generación Perdida.Incluían a E. E. Commings, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos y Sherwood Anderson. Estos escritores desarrollaron temas y estilos literarios que siguen definiendo la literatura moderna.

El poeta E. E. Cummings llevó nuevas ideas a su poesía. No usaba mayúsculas y no seguía la manera acostumbrada de presentar poesía en la página. Ernest Hemingway usaba un estilo directo y terso y expresivo en sus novelas. Si primer libro, The Sun Also Rises (Siempre sale el sol) (también conocido como Fiesta), describe el sentimiento de desarraigo de muchos jóvenes después de la guerra.

Poem by E.E. Cummings:

[i carry your heart with me(i carry it in]


i carry your heart with me(i carry it in

my heart)i am never without it(anywhere

i go you go,my dear;and whatever is done

by only me is your doing,my darling)

                                                      i fear

Group 4: How did music and literature change during the 1920s?

ocument B

Source: History Alive, 2009

Jazz Grows Out of Blues and Ragtime

Jazz is a form of music that was created in America. It grew from a combination of influences, including African rhythms, European harmonies, African American folk music, and 19th-century American band music and instruments. At the turn of the 20th century, these forms began to mix and grew into blues and ragtime. The blues sprang from African American work songs, with elements of gospel and folk music. Many blues songs are about loneliness or sorrow, but others declare a humorous reaction to life's troubles. 

Jazz combined the beats of ragtime with the deep feelings of the blues. To this already rich mix, jazz musicians added improvisation. This is a process by which musicians make up music as they play rather than relying just on written music. So, to some degree, the jazz musician is his or her own composer.

Jazz was born in New Orleans. There, African American musicians were in demand to play at funeral parades, in shows, and as part of riverboat orchestras. Many gifted but untrained black musicians did not know how to read music. They began to make up melodies and expand on familiar tunes. Eventually, the improvised solo became an integral element of jazz. The jazz pianist Duke Ellington said of improvisation, "It's like an act of murder; you play with intent to commit something."

Printed, or sheet music – something jazz players didn’t use when they improvised.

Duke Ellington, shown here at the piano, was known for his good looks and elegance, as well as for his brilliant music. His band played at the Cotton Club for four years straight. “I am not playing ‘jazz,’” he once told an interviewer. “I am trying to play the natural feelings of a people.”
Group 4: How did music and literature change during the 1920s?
Document B

El Jazz surge del blues y ragtime

Source: History Alive, 2009.

El jazz es una forma musical típicamente americana. Surgió de una combinación de influencias, incluyendo ritmos africanos, armonías europeas, música folklórica africanoamericana y la música y los instrumentos de banda americana del siglo diecinueve. Al final del siglo diecinueve y comienzos del siglo veinte, estas formas empezaron a combinarse y se convirtieron en blues y ragtime. El blues surgió de canciones de trabajo africanoamericanas con elementos de gospel y música folklórica. Muchas canciones de blues tratan la soledad o el pesar, pero otras presentan una reacción humorística a los problemas de la vida. El ragtime usaba un ritmo sincopado, o acentuado de forma irregular, que le daba a la música una sensación de alegría y cadenciosidad.

El jazz combinaba los ritmos sincopados del ragtime con los profundos sentimientos del blues. Los músicos agregaron la improvisación a esta mezcla ya rica. Se trata de un proceso mediante el que los músicos inventan la música al tocar en lugar de depender únicamente de partituras impresas.Por consiguiente, hasta cierto punto, los músicos de jazz son sus propios compositores.

El jazz nació en Nueva Orleans. Allí los músicos africanoamericanos eran solicitados para tocar en desfiles funerarios, espectáculos de trovadores y como parte de orquestas de embarcaciones fluviales. Muchos músicos negros talentosos pero faltos de formación no sabían leer música.Empezaron a inventar melodías y ampliar tonadas conocidas. Finalmente, el solo improvisado pasó a formar un elemento esencial del jazz. El pianista de jazz Duke Ellington dijo de la improvisación: “Es como un asesinato; se toca con la intención de cometer algo”.

Musica imprido – algo que lose musicos de jazz no usan cuando improvisaron.

Duke Elington, demuestra aqui tocando el piano, habia conocido por su musica y su estillo. Dijo que “No estoy tocando “jazz”…estoy tratando de tocar los sentimientos naturalezas de una gente.”

Group 5: How did life for women change during the 1920s?

Document A

Women Seek New Opportunities and Freedom

Source: History Alive, 2009.

The 1920s brought expanded educational and job opportunities for women, in addition to their greater political rights. The number of women completing high school doubled during the decade. By the 1920s, one out of every four college professors members was a woman. Women were entering many professions once open only to men. The number of women professionals rose by 50 percent by the end of the decade.

Women got the right to vote in 1920, with the passing of the 19th Amendment
ith wider opportunities and greater incomes, women, especially young women, rebelled against old traditions. They cut their hair into short "bobs," a hairstyle easier to care for than the long hair of their mothers' generation. They also wore makeup. Lipstick, blush, and eye shadow were no longer signs of an "immoral" woman. Women also began to wear shorter dresses. In 1919, skirts were just 6 inches above the ground. By 1927, skirts were above women’s knees.

Women's social behavior changed as their skirts got shorter. Drinking alcohol and smoking in public were no longer socially unacceptable. In fact, they were signs of a "modern" woman. Family patterns also changed. Between 1914 and 1929, the number of divorces per year more than doubled.

The decline in birth rates was due in part to the pioneering work of Margaret Sanger. As a nurse caring for poor women in New York City, Sanger saw a link between family size and human misery. "Everywhere we look," she wrote, "we see poverty and large families going hand in hand." She also came to believe that women would never achieve equality with men unless they could choose when and if to bear children. "No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her body," she said. "No woman can call herself free until she can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother."

In 1916, Sanger opened the country's first family planning clinic, only to be arrested and jailed. At the time, distributing birth control information was illegal in every state. Sanger dedicated her life to altering those laws. She also founded what became the nation's leading family planning organization—the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

Margaret Sanger invented the term “birth control” to replace the older term “voluntary motherhood.” In 1916, she was arrested for teaching women how to limit family size. Yet, by the 1920s, family planning clinics had begun to appear across the country.

Group 5: How did life for women change during the 1920s?

Document A

Source: History Alive, 2009

Las Mujeres buscan nuevas oportunidades y libertades

Además de mayores derechos políticos, la década de 1920 trajo mayores oportunidades educacionales y laborales para las mujeres. El número de mujeres que completaban los estudios secundarios (de preparatoria) se duplicó durante la década. Para la década de 1920, uno de cada cuatro profesores universitarios era mujer. Las mujeres entraban en muchas profesiones una vez sólo abiertas a los hombres. El número de mujeres profesionales aumentó en un 50 por ciento para el final de la década.

Las mujeres recibieron el derecho de votar en 1920, con el enmienda 19.
l disponer de más amplias oportunidades y mayores ingresos, las mujeres, sobre todo las jóvenes, se rebelaban contra las antiguas costumbres.Llevaban el pelo corto, un peinado más fácil de mantener que el pelo largo de la generación de sus madres. Además, se maquillaban. El lápiz labial, el colorete (color para mejillas) y la sombra de ojos ya no eran indicios de mujeres “inmorales”. Las mujeres empezaron a llevar vestidos más cortos también. En 1919 las faldas llegaban a seis pulgadas del suelo. Para 1927, las faldas ya no cubrían las rodillas.

El comportamiento social de las mujeres cambió conforme usaban faldas más cortas. El tomar bebidas alcohólicas y fumar en público ya no eran socialmente inaceptables. De hecho, eran indicios de las mujeres “modernas”. Los patrones familiares cambiaron también. Entre 1914 y 1929 el número de divorcios anuales más que se duplicó.

El descenso en las tasas de natalidad se debía en parte al trabajo innovador de Margaret Sanger. En su capacidad de enfermera que cuidaba a mujeres pobres en la ciudad de Nueva York, Sanger vio una conexión entre el tamaño de las familias y el sufrimiento humano. “Dondequiera que miremos, observamos que la pobreza y las familias numerosas van de la mano”, escribió. Además, llegó a la conclusión de que las mujeres nunca lograrían la igualdad con los hombres a menos que pudieran decidir si tener hijos o no y cuándo tenerlos. “Ninguna mujer puede llamarse libre en tanto no tenga el control de su propio cuerpo”, dijo. “Ninguna mujer puede llamarse libre, en tanto no pueda elegir voluntariamente si quiere o no ser madre”.

En 1916 Sanger abrió la primera clínica de planificación familiar del país, sólo para ser detenida y encarcelada. En esa época, la distribución de información sobre el control de la natalidad estaba prohibida en todos los estados. Sanger dedicó la vida a la alteración de esas leyes.También fundó lo que llegó a ser la organización de planificación familiar más importante de la nación—la Federación de Planificación Familiar de América (Planned Parenthood Federation of America).

Margaret Sanger acuñó el término “control de la natalidad” para reemplazar el término más antiguo de “maternidad voluntaria”. En 1916 fue detenida por enseñarles a las mujeres a limitar el tamaño de sus familias. Sin embargo, clínicas de planificación familiar habían empezado a aparecer en todo el país para la década de 1920.

Group 5: How did life for women change during the 1920s?
ocument B
– Flappers of the 1920s

“Flappers” were the name for the girls who wore new, modern clothes and rejected the traditional culture and style of their mothers.

Document C – New Hair Style – The “Bob”

Many young women were cutting their hair – short. They called it “bobbing.” Some parents wouldn’t allow it. Short hair seemed indecent4 to the older generation, but hip to those who did it. The girls who weren’t allowed to cut their hair felt old fashioned.
Source: Joy Hakim, A History of U.S.

Group 5: How did life for women change during the 1920s?
ocument D
- Bathing Suits of the 1800s (Ropa para nadir en los 1800s)
Document E - Girls at the beach in Boston arrested for “indecent exposure” (not wearing enough clothes).

1 Highest standard of living: this means that Americans had the most comfortable lives – as a country, they had more money and things they needed than many other countries in the world.

2 Shameful – something you are not proud of; verguenza

3 Affordable: not too much money; cheap

4 Indecent (adj.) – not appropriate; not polite or well-mannered.

Añadir el documento a tu blog o sitio web


Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconOctubre 16 de 2013
«The Way It Is» (Así es), William Stafford (poeta estadounidense; 1914-1993) escribe. «There's a thread you follow. It goes among/things...

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconBroadcast and Cable Selling 3

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconU7 2008-2009 Group A

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconAppendix: Members of the Eusos study group

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconFulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad (gpa)

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconThe Following syllabus represents an outline of some of what will...

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconA pragmatic Guide To Communication & Change Byron Lewis & Frank Pucelik

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconInspirado por el Cædmon Hymn, de 9 versos. El Cynewulf Group

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconHas given the following two assignments to the group. Choose which...

Group 1: How did buying and selling products change during the 1920s? iconThe Big Idea: An object’s inertia causes it to continue moving the...

© 2015