Language family: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic






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títuloLanguage family: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic
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HAWAIERA

HAWAIIAN, HAWAIANO, HAWAÏEN
Language family: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic.

Language codes:

ISO 639-1 -

ISO 639-2 haw

ISO 639-3 haw

Glottolog: hawa1245.
Beste izen batzuk (autoglotonimoa: ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi):

hawaiian [HWI] hizk. AEB.

‘olelo hawai’i alt hawaiian [HWI].

‘olelo hawai’i makuahine alt hawaiian [HWI].
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (USA)
hawaiian (‘olelo hawai’i, ‘olelo hawai’i makuahine) [HWI] ama hizkuntzadun 1.000 hiztun, 500 Ni’ihau Island-ekoekin, beste 500 70ko eta 80ko (1995, Laina Wong Uni. of Hawaii). 8.000k hitz egin eta uler dezake (1993 Keith Haugen). 237.128 hawaiar etniko Hawaiin (1996 Hawaii State Dept. of Health), populazioaren % 18,8 (1990, Hawaii State Dept. of Health), eta 99.269 hawaiar etniko AEBetako kontinentean (1990ko errolda), Kaliforniako 24.245 barne. 1900ean 37.000 ama hizkuntzadun hiztun ziren (1995, Honolulu Advertiser). Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic. % 79ko antza rarotonganarekin, % 77koa tuamotuanarekin, % 76 tahitierarekin (Elbert), % 71ekoa maorierarekin (Schütz), 5,70 markeserarekin, % 64koa rapa nuiarekin. Hiztunek hawaiar ingeles kreolera erabiltzen dute (pidgina) edo ingelesa bigarren hizkuntza bezala. Hizkuntza ofiziala. hiztegia, gramatika, VSO. Puna Leo eskola pribatuek hawaiar immertsio programak eskaintzen dituzte 2 urteko 800 bat hawaiar etnikoentzat 2. mailako eskolan. Hawaiiko Unibertsitateak lizentziaturak hawaieraz.
Hizkuntza / lengua: hawaiera / hawaiian / hawaiano / hawaïen.

Hiztunak / hablantes (2002): 2.000-24.000 (Wikipedia).

Herrialdea / país: Hawaii.



HISTORIA. Malaio-polinesiar familiako hizkuntza austronesiarra, jatorriz Hawaiikoa.

XIX. m.aren hastapenetan garrantzizko erresuma independente baten hizkuntza zen ahozko literatura bikainarekin eta era guztietako publikazioak zituen, aldizkariak barne. 1839an itzuli zen Biblia. Azken hamarkadetan biziki moteldu da hizkuntza eta azkenaldian ahaleginak egin dira iraungi ez dadin. Gaur Hawaiiko Unibertsitatean ikas daiteke eta ia era nostalgikoan erabiltzen dute elizkizunetan.

HIZKUNTZA. Ezaugarri nagusiak.

Fonetika. A) Zortzi kontsonante bakarrik baliatzen ditu (w, m, p, l, n, k, h, ʔ) eta 5 bokal (a, e, i, o, u). B) Hain material foniko eskasarekin, 45 partikula monosilabiko sortu ditu, hawaieraren oinarria.

Morfosintaxia. A) Ez du hitz berezirik aditzak adierazteko eta erroak dira funtzio hori dutenak, aurrizkien arabera izen edo aditz bihurtuz. B) Ez dauka hitz berezirik ere adjektiboentzat. C) Ez du generoa bereizten, baina bai numeroa (singular, plural eta kasu batzuetan paukala) eta 5 artikulu forma, hauetako bat pertsonentzat izanik. D) Izenordainek 3 serie dituzte: singular, dual eta plurala. E) Aditzek aspektua (inkoatiboa, perfektiboa, progresiboa), denbora (iragana eta ez iragana) bereizten dituzte eta aktibo eta estatikoetan daude banatuta. F) Perpausaren ohiko ordena Aditza + Subjektua + Osagarriak dira, baina onartzen ditu beste hainbat posizio ere. G) Hona hemen hawaieraz lehenengo 10 zenbakiak: ‘ekahi (1), ‘elua (2), ‘ekolu (3), ‘ehā (4), ‘elima (5), ‘eono (6), ‘ehiku (7), ‘ewalu (8), ‘eiwa (9), ‘umi (10).


Idazkera. Latindar alfabetoa.



HISTORIA. Lengua austronésica de la familia malayo-polinesia de la isla de Hawai.

A principios del s. XIX era la lengua de un importante reino independiente con abundante literatura oral y también publicaciones de todo tipo, incluso periódicas. En 1839 se tradujo la Biblia. Las últimas décadas han vivido la progresiva desaparición de esta lengua y últimamente se han llevado a cabo algunos esfuerzos para evitarlo. Hoy se sigue estudiando en la universidad de Hawai y se utiliza de manera casi nostálgica en algunos oficios religiosos.
LENGUA. Principales características.

Fonética. A) Entre las consonantes solo utiliza 8 (w, m, p, l, n, k, h, ʔ), y entre las vocales 5 (a, e, i, o, u). B) Con tan escaso material fónico, se crean 45 partículas monosilábicas que constituyen la base del hawaiano.

Morfosintaxis. A) No dispone de palabras específicas para los verbos sino que las raíces comparten, según los prefijos, su uso como nombres o como verbos. B) Ni siquiera existen palabras especialmente destinadas a ser adjetivos. C) No distingue el género, aunque sí el número (singular, plural y algunos casos de paucal) y 5 formas de artículos, una de ellas reservada para personas. D) Los pronombres disponen de 3 series: singular, dual y plural. E) Los verbos distinguen aspecto (incoativo, pererfectivo, progresivo), tiempo (pasado, no pasad) y se organizan en una básica distinción entre activos y estáticos. También se conjugan en pasiva. F) El orden habitual de la oración es el de Verbo + Sujeto + Complementos, pero también acepta otras posiciones. G) Los 10 primeros números en hawaiano son: ‘ekahi (1), ‘elua (2), ‘ekolu (3), ‘ehā (4), ‘elima (5), ‘eono (6), ‘ehiku (7), ‘ewalu (8), ‘eiwa (9), ‘umi (10).

Escritura. Alabeto latino.


GRAMATIKAK, METODOAK, ESKULIBURUAK
A POCKET GUIDE TO THE HAWAIIAN LANGUAGE, Things Hawaiian, 17. ed., Albert J. Schütz, 17,5x10,5, 60 or., Hong-Kong, 2003.

ALL ABOUT HAWAIIAN, University of Hawai’i Press, I. Spelling and Pronunciation: Early Impressions, Creating an Alphabet, The Glottal Stop, Long Vowels, How to Pronounce the Consonants, How Accent Works. II. Grammar: Word order, Variations on a Theme, How to Ask Questions. III. Vocabularu: Hawaiian Vocabulary as a Reflection of Culture, English Words in Hawaiian, Hawaiian Words in English, Words and Phrases a Visitor Is Likely to Hear, Place Names, Commonly Mispronounced Place Names, Everyday Words, The Future of Hawaiian, English-Hawaiian Word List, Albert J. Schütz, 17,5x12,5, 65 or., Honolulu, 1995.

SOUTH PACIFIC PHRASEBOOKS, Speak the languages of Paradise, Fijian, Hawaiian, Kanak languages, Maori, Niuean, Rapanui, Rarotongan, Samoan, Tahitian, Tongan, Fijian Hindi, Pacific French, Spanish, Pacific Englishes, Lonely Planet, authors: Hadrien Dhont, Carrie Stipic Fawcett, Naomi C. Losch, Te’Atamira, Fepulea’i Lasei Vita John Mayer, Ana Betty Rapahango, Dr. William Liller, Michael Simpson, Darrell Tryon, 2nd edition, 14x9, 306 or., Victoria (Australia), 2008.
HIZTEGIAK, LEXIKOAK
HAWAIIAN-ENGLISH / ENGLISH-HAWAIIAN, revised and enlarged edition, Edukia: I. Preface. II. On translating into Hawaiian. III. Acknowledgments. IV. Pronunciation of Hawaiian. V. Glossary of Grammatical and Other Technical Terms Used in the Dictionary. VI. Arrangement of the Hawaiian-English Dictionary. VII. Arrangement of the English-Hawaiian Dictionary, oso-oso bibliografia ona, Mary Kawena eta Samuel H. Elbert, University of Hawaii Press, 24x16, 572 or., Honolulu, 1986.
HAWAIAR ALFABETOA

HAWAIIAN ALPHABET



Hawaiarrek ez zuten idazkera baliatu mendebaldarrekin kontaktuan jarri arte, sinbolo petroglifoak egitea izan ezik. Hawaiar alfabeto modernoa, ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi, latindar idazkerandago oinarritua. Hawaiar hitzak bokalez bakarrik amaitzen dira, eta kontsonante bakoitzak bokala eraman behar du jarraian. Hawaiar ordena alfabetikoak bokalak kontsonanteen aurrean ditu, ondorengo taulan ikus daitekeenez.



Hawaiians had no written language prior to western contact, except for petroglyph symbols. The modern Hawaiian alphabet, ka pīʻāpā Hawaiʻi, is based on the Latin script. Hawaiian words end only in vowels, and every consonant must be followed by a vowel. The Hawaiian alphabetical order has all of the vowels before the consonants, as in the following chart.





Aa

Ee

Ii

Oo

Uu

Hh

Kk

Ll

Mm

Nn

Pp

Ww

ʻ

/a/

/e/

/i/

/o/

/u/

/h/

/k~t/

/l/

/m/

/n/

/p/

/v~w/

/ʔ/

Kontsonanteak / Consonants





Kontsonanteak / Consonants




Labial

Alveolar

Velar

Glottal

Nasal

m

n

 

 

Plosive

p

t ~ k

ʔ

Fricative

 

 

 

h

Sonorant

w ~ v

l

 

 

Monotongoak / Monophthongs





Monotongoak / Monophthongs




Short

Long

Front

Back

Front

Back

Close

i

u





Mid

ɛ ~ e

o





Open

ɐ ~ ə


Diptongoak / Diphthongs





Diptongo laburrak / Short diphthongs 




 Ending with /u/ 

 Ending with /i/ 

 Ending with /o/ 

 Ending with /e/ 

 Starting with /i/ 

iu

 

 

 

 Starting with /o/ 

ou

oi

 

 

 Starting with /e/ 

eu

ei

 

 

 Starting with /a/ 

au

ai

ao

ae


Diptongo luzeak / Long diphthongs 





 Ending with /u/ 

 Ending with /i/ 

 Ending with /o/ 

 Ending with /e/ 

 Starting with /o/ 

oːu

 

 

 

 Starting with /e/ 

 

eːi

 

 

 Starting with /a/ 

aːu

aːi

aːo

aːo

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