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Appendix C: Resources and Reference Materials
After, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning, day, week, etc., most important, later, ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.
Contrast and Comparison:
contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise,
on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather,
similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore
at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time,
for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on,
meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier,
simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, and, in addition to, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise. also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly
after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally as can be seen, generally speaking, as shown above, in the long run, given these points, as has been noted, for the most part, in fact, in summary, to summarize, altogether, overall, on the whole, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then.
Acronym: a word formed from the initial letters of a multi-word name.
Acrostics: A kind of word puzzle sometimes used as a teaching tool in vocabulary development in which lines of verse or prose are arranged so that words, phrases, or sentences are formed when certain letters from each line are used in a certain sequence.
Allegory: A story with underlying symbols that really represents something else.
Alliteration: The repetition of initial consonant sounds in closely positioned words or stressed syllables for aural effect.
Allusion: A reference to something or someone, usually literary.
Anachronism: Placing a person or object in an inappropriate historical situation. It can be deliberate or unintentional.
Analogy: Comparing something to something else.
Anecdote: A short narrative, story or tale.
Anaphora: The deliberate repetition of a word or phrase usually at the beginning of several successive verses, clauses, or paragraphs
Anthology: A collection of extracts from the writings of various authors.
Antagonist: The major character opposing the protagonist. Usually the villain.
Anthropomorphism: Assigning human attributes, such as emotions or physical characteristic to nonhuman things. Often used for attributing human characteristics to animals.
Antonym: Two words that express opposing concepts.
Aphorism: a brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life.
Archetype: A symbol, theme, setting, or character-type that recurs in different times and places in literature so frequently or prominently as to suggest that it embodies some essential element of “universal” human experience, such as Frankenstein, Dracula, and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the archetypes that have influenced horror stories.
Assonance: The repetition in words of identical or similar vowel sounds in closely positioned words, as /a/ in the mad hatter, for aural effect.
Bias: A partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation.
Caption: brief description accompanying an illustration.
Chiasmus: An inversion of the order of words or phrases, when repeated or subsequently referred to in a sentence. I.e. One should eat to live not live to eat.
Chronological: order of events over time.
Cinquain: A five-line stanza of syllabic verse. The five lines have, respectively, two, four, six, eight, and two syllables.
Clauses: word groups with subjects and verbs, they make statements and tell who did what in a sentence. There are independent clauses (can stand alone) and subordinate clauses (cannot stand alone as a complete sentence). Noun Clause, Adjective clause, adverb clause.
Cliché – a phrase or expression that has been repeated so often it has lost its significance.
Closed syllable: A syllable ending with one or more consonants.
Commentary: information. Student writer’s interpretations and inferences supported with concrete information.
Compound word: A word that is made when two words are joined together to form a new word.
Concrete information: Factual material from the text.
Content prose (text): Non-fiction prose selections taken from across the curriculum.
Context: the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event.
Contraction: A word formed from 2 or more words by omitting or combining some sounds.
Couplet: A pair of rhyming verse lines, especially lines of the same length.
Descriptive writing: Provides details about an object, place, or person purposefully to make the experience depicted come alive for the reader.
Diamantes: Poetry arranged in a diamond pattern using seven lines in the following manner: line 1, one word subject (noun); line 2, two adjectives describing line 1 noun; line 3, three participles ending in -ing or -ed to describe line I noun; line 4, four words – two related to the noun in line 1 and two related to the noun in line 7 (they may be arranged concurrently or alternately, as the originator of the poem wishes); line 5, three participles ending in -ing or -ed to describe line 7 noun; line 6, two adjectives describing line 7 noun; line 7, one word growing out of or opposite to line 1 noun (another noun).
Digraph: Two letters that represent one speech sound, such as ch for /ch/ in chin or ea for /e/ in bread.
Direct and Indirect Object: Direct object is the noun that receives the action of a transitive verb, normally it follows the verb. An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object.
Discourse: Purposeful communication between people.
Disinformation: Deliberately misleading information announced publicly or leaked by a government or especially by an intelligence agency for the purpose of influencing public opinion or the government in another nation.
Elegy: A mournful and melancholy poem or song usually to pay tribute to a deceased person.
Embedding: Process of combining sentence in which one clause or phrase is contained inside another.
Evaluation: Judgment of performance as process or product or change.
Exaggeration: making to seem more important than it really is.
Excerpt: a passage selected from a larger work.
Expository text/writing: One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing (expository, narrative, descriptive, and persuasive), intended to set forth or explain.
Fable: A story that has a moral, usually involving animals or mythical creatures as the main characters.
Fairy tale: an interesting by highly implausible story.
Fallacies: Errors in directions or mistakes in logic.
Falling action: characterized by diminishing tensions and the resolution of the plot’s conflicts and complications.
Figurative Language/ Figure of Speech: Language characterized by figures of speech such as metaphors and similes as well as elaborate expression through imagery.
Flash back: a scene that interrupts an action of a work to show a previous event.
Fluency: The clear, rapid, and easy expression of ideas in reading, writing, or speaking: movements that flow smoothly, easily, and readily.
Focused free-writing: Free-writing that is restricted by time or topic
Footnote: a printed note paced below the text on a printed page.
Foreshadowing: the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot.
Free verse: Verse with an irregular metrical pattern and line length.
Free-writing: Writing that is unrestricted in form, style, content and purpose; a technique designed to aid the student-writer in finding a personal voice through uninhibited expression.
Genre: A form or style of writing, such as narrative (a story), informative (a report), or functional (instructions).
Homographs: Words that are spelled the same but may sound different and have different meanings, such as minute (a minute of time) and minute (very small).
Homonyms: Words that sound the same and have the same spelling but have different meanings, such as table (a piece of furniture) and table (a list of information).
Homophones: Words that sound the same but are spelled differently and have different meanings, such as hear and here.
Hyperbole: A deliberate exaggeration.
Indirect Dialogue: Language that communicated what was expressed in the dialogue, without using a direct quotation.
Infographics: Information conveyed by graphic elements, including charts, graphs, etc., often contained in print media.
Inversion: An interchange of position of adjacent objects in a sequence, especially a change in normal word order, such as the placement of a verb before its subject.
Irony: An expression of meaning that is opposite of the literal meaning.
Kinds of sentences: Declarative—makes a statement or expresses and opinion and ends with a period; imperative—makes a request or gives a command and ends with either a period or an exclamation point; exclamatory—expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point; interrogative—asks a question and ends with a question mark.
Limericks: A fixed form of light verse of five lines with a rhyme scheme of a-a-b-b-a and specific meter, used exclusively for humorous or nonsense verse.
Literary device: An all-purpose term used to describe any literary technique deliberately used to achieve a specific effect.
Literary prose: Novels, short stories, essays, etc. taken from American, British, and/or world literature.
Logic: The study of criteria for the evaluation of arguments, such as ethical appeal, emotional appeal, and logical appeal.
Main idea: What a piece of writing is mainly about.
Mechanics: Includes the system of symbols and cuing devices a writer uses to help readers make meaning. Features are capitalization,punctuation, formatting, and spelling.
Memoir: an account of the author’s personal experience.
Metaphor: Is a comparison that doesn’t use the words like or as.
Meter: The rhythm of a poem. Most commonly iambic.
Mode of writing: The major types of written discourse: persuasive, expository, narrative; descriptive
Multisyllabic: words of more than syllable.
Narrative: Text in any form, a literary representation of an event or story (print, oral, or visual) that recounts events or tells a story
Non-print text: Any text that creates meaning through sounds or images or both, such as photographs, drawings, collages, films, videos, computer graphics, speeches, oral poems and tales, and songs.
Onomatopoeia: using words that imitate the sound they denote.
Onset: The consonants preceding the vowel of a syllable, as /str/ in strip and /c/ in cat
Organizational structure: Compare/contrast, analyze cause/effect, chronological order, inference, and evaluation.
Oxymoron: A phrase in which the words are contradictory.
Paean: An expression of joyful praise.
Parable: A story that has a moral.
Paradox: This is the phrase that appears to be contradictory but that actually contains some basic truth that resolves the apparent contradiction.
Parallelism: The repetition of sounds, meanings or structures to create a certain style.
Parody: A literary work in which the style of an author is imitated for comic effect or ridicule.
Paraphrase: Restatement of a text passage using other words.
Pastoral: A work that deals with the lives of people, especially shepherds, in the country or in nature. Not in the city.
Pathos: Something that evokes a feeling of pity or sympathy. Think of the word ‘pathetic’. A pathetic person adds an element of pathos to a story.
Persona: An assumed identity or fictional “I” assumed by a writer in a literary work; thus the speaker or narrator.
Personal voice: In writing, the distinctive way in which the writer expresses ideas with respect to style, form, content, purpose, etc; author’s voice.
Personification: Assigning human attributes to something nonhuman.
Perspective: The place from which the narrator or character sees things.
Phoneme: The smallest units of sound in a given language (The phonemes in the words are not always the same as the letters in a word. In the word dog, there are three phonemes [d-o-g] and three letters. In the word snow, there are three phonemes [s-n-o] but four letters.)
Phonics: A term generally used to refer to the system of sound-letter relationships used in reading and writing. Phonics begins with the understanding that each letter of the English alphabet stands for one or more sounds (or phonemes).
Phrase : a group of words without a subject and verb.
Point of view: The angle of vision from which a story is told; the four basic points of view are 1) omniscient –the author tells the story, using third person, and knows all and is free to tell anything, including what other characters think and feel and why they act as they do; 2) limited omniscient—the author tells the story, using third person, but limits himself to a complete knowledge of one character and tells only what that one character thinks, feels, see, or hears; 3) first person—the story is told by one of the characters, using first person; 4) objective (or dramatic)—the author tells the story, using third person, but is limited to reporting what his characters say or do and does not interpret their behavior or tell their thoughts or feelings.
Portfolio: A systematic and purpose collection of a variety of materials related to student learning. Rather than an archive of all the student’s work throughout the year, a portfolio can serve as both an instructional and an assessment tool. The essential contents of both instructional and assessment portfolios are samples of student performance in important learning activities, student, teacher, and parent reflections on those samples, and any other relevant information that documents a student’s developmental status and progress over time.
Practical texts: Informational and technical texts useful in everyday applications, including manuals, handbooks, warranties, etc.
Prefix: an affix that is added in front of the word.
Presentation: May be oral, written, graphic, or musical and include art, music, writing.
Pre-writing activities: List, survey, read, discuss, free-write (focused/unfocused), learning and reading log, gather data, conduct experiments, debate, interview, observe, use visual aids including mapping, webbing, and formal outlining to gather and organize material for writing.
Primary sources: Firsthand information, including memoirs, interviews, letters, and public documents.
Prose: The ordinary language of men in speaking or writing;
Protagonist: The main character, usually the hero.
Quatrain: A stanza or poem of four lines, rhymed or unrhymed.
Rhetorical devices: Use of language mainly by the arrangement of words to achieve special effects.
Rhetorical strategies: Plans used in arranging writing tasks or compositions, including comparison/contrast, narration, description, process analysis, etc.
Rising action: action that leads to turning point.
Root word: the base word
Rubric: A scoring guide used to evaluate the quality of a student performance; typically, a rubric lists criteria that describe levels of proficiency on a task.
Satire: Ridicule of a subject.
Science fiction: elements of fiction, fantasy and scientific fact. Many stories are set in the future.
Secondary sources : Works that have been collected, interpreted, or published by someone other than the original source.
Sentence formation: Reflects the writer’s ability to form competent, appropriately mature sentences to express thoughts. Features of this writing domain are completeness, absence of fused sentences, expansion through standard coordination and modifiers, embedding through standard subordination and modifiers, and standard word order.
S-V= Subject + Verb
S-V-DO= Subject + Verb + Direct Object
S-V-IO-DO= Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
S-LV-PN = Subject + Linking Verb + Predicate Nominative
S-LV-PA = Subject + Linking Verb + Predicate Adjective
Sentence Types *see Types of Sentences
Setting: where a story takes place.
Simile: Comparison of two things using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’.
Socratic discourse: A technique in which a teacher does not give information directly but instead asks a series of questions, with the result that the student comes either to the desired knowledge by answering the questions or to a deeper awareness of the limits of knowledge.
Sound devices: Words with meanings or functions that are indicated by their pronunciation, including onomatopoeia, alliteration, consonance, etc.
Stanza: The divisions in a poem, like a paragraph in prose.
Style: The characteristics of a work that reflect the author’s distinctive way of writing; an author’s use of language, its effects, and its appropriateness to the author’s intent and theme.
Suffix: an affix that is added at the end of a word.
Syllable: a vowel or a group of letters containing one vowel sound.
Syllogism: logical formula consisting of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion: deceptive or specious argument.
Symbol: something used for representing something else.
Synonym: A word having the same or almost the same meaning as some other.
Syntax: The rules by which words are combined to form grammatically correct sentences (i.e., plurals, future tense, etc.); the study of how sentences are formed and the grammatical rules that govern their formation.
Tall tale: an improbable story.
Text Features: Format, italics, headings, sub-headings, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations.
Theme: The main idea of a piece of literature.
Tone: Style or manner of expression. The implied attitude toward the subject matter or audience of a text that readers may infer from the text’s language, imagery, and structure.
Transitive verb and Intransitive verb: transitive verbs require a subject and an object and intransitive verbs do not require an object.
Types of sentences: Simple—consists of one independent clause; compound—consists of two or more independent clauses; complex—consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses; compound-complex—consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent (subordinate) clauses.
Usage: Comprises the writer’s use of word-level features that cause written language to be acceptable and effective for standard discourse. Features are standard inflections, agreement, word meaning, and conventions.
Venn Diagram: a diagram that uses circles to represent set theory.
Verbs: words that convey an action or occurrence – transitive, intransitive, linking, helping, dynamic, static, regular, irregular.
Verbals: Forms of a verb that is used as other parts of speech. Three types of verbals are infinitives, gerunds, and participles.
Verse: A stanza, a group of lines in a poem.
Visual aids: Presentational tools that appeal to the sight and are used for illustration and demonstration.
Visualization: The process or result of mentally picturing objects or events that are normally experienced directly.
Voice: see Personal voice.
Writing process: The many aspects of the complex act of producing a written communication, specifically, planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.